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Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807 - 1882)

    Giuseppe Garibaldi was the founder of modern ltaly. The struggle for Italian independence and unification was led by him and his movement was known as young Italy Movement. He was the patriot, who gave up his life to the service of his motherland. He fulfilled the dreams of Mazzini of a united and strong ltaly.

    Garibaldi was born in 1807 in a sailor's family. After his early education, he worked as a sailor. Then he became a member of an organization called 'Young ltaly' and devoted his time in unifying small Italians of his day were little better than slave, he made a solemn vow that he would dedicate his life to make his people free. He along with members of 'Young ltaly' pledged to rid his country of the Austrians. His love of freedom was so strong that though he was constantly in danger of death, he continued his fight for freedom.

    Garibaldi organized a strong army of 1000 patriots, highly motivated to follow their leader to get freedom for their country. He called this well-disciplined army 'Red Shirts'. The sight of their leader always thrilled the Italians, when he addressed them with inspiring words. Garibaldi led two unsuccessful expeditions to liberate Rome in 1862 and 1867.

    When he was recognized by the Austrians, Garibaldi had to surrender in San Marino. Garibaldi was exiled to America. But when his years of exile were over, he returned to Italy with more vigor, where victory, at last was with him. His long-cherished dream was fulfilled, when he defeated the Austrians. Garibaldi represented Rome in the newly-elected Parliament of Italy and his each visit to Rome was a signal for demonstration of enthusiasm.

    Garibaldi was much more than a soldier. He was ever willing to help the oppressed people. He remained unaffected by lure of power and wealth. After unifying ltaly, he lived in a deserted island in Sardinia. He spent hi s last days in physical pain. He died in 1883 at the age of 75.

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